PCRaster is a Geographical Information System using a raster based approach to analyse spatial data. The included modelling language allows to develop iterative spatial-temporal environmental models. Detailed information about PCRaster is available at

MODFLOW simulates the three-dimensional groundwater flow through a porous medium by using a finite-difference method. It is developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and widely used for groudwater modelling. Amongst others impacts of rivers, drains and wells can be simulated. For detailed informations about the physical and mathematical concepts we refer to the documentation at the MODFLOW website ( and the user manuals (e.g. TWRI 6-A1, Open-File Report 00-92, both online available).

The PCRaster Modflow extension enables a modeller to embed groundwater flow calulations in dynamic models described with PCRaster Python or the PCRcalc modelling language (see also Schmitz et al, 2009).

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